Managing change in organisation
Its a failed work ,I need correction made and referencing too,It should be Harvard refernce
Module : Managing Change In Organisations
Assignment : Word count :3000 words
I am grateful to Almighty Allah for giving me the health and strength to complete this work. My appreciation goes to my tutor David Newton for guiding me through.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Organizational Change Management
The organization always seeks to manage and work on strategies that can help to gain, aggressive advantages and that can draw them to a fertile market like India and China. With this demand the markets bring a huge burden of core competencies to have an extension of the services as well as the products. This situation demands for the expansion in the present knowledge, enhancements of practices adopted as well as the sources of learning in the organization. . It includes the demand of knowledge to adopt new cultures and the learning of demanding functions to adjust to new market. In this discussion, we will have an insight to a company and will have an understanding about how the new emerging knowledge and the changes in an organization have an impact on their working abilities. The generated outcomes will also provide us the idea about how the practitioners are understanding the knowledge and learning challenges that are commonly faced by an organization who are looking to make their place in other markets. In this discussion, we will consider the leading food company of the world “Nestle”. The company has an extensive history and is globally recognized. The company is extensively rich with marketing and management tactics. In this discussion, we will evaluate the changes in an organization as well as the importance and process of learning and knowledge in a growing organization.
Table of Contents
Organizational Change Management 2
Table of Content: 4
Organizational Behavior and Organizational Culture 5
The change process 6
Change Control Systems 7
The Scope Change Control System: 7
The Cost Change Control System: 7
The schedule Change Control System: 7
The Control Change Control System: 8
Integrated Change Control 8
Human Resources: 10
Stakeholders: . 10
Knowledge Management 12
Organizational Learning 13
Knowledge Management in Organizations 13
KM Strategies 16
The Organization of KM 17
Extra-organizational KM 17
Nestle Analysis 18
Organizational behavior is the term that includes a number of significant organizational attitude including their marketing strategies, change in the behavior, market adaptation and many other like learning and knowledge, etc. it also carries the discussion about the effects of the personal as well as a team level framework of the entire organization. This behavior of an organization varies from democratic end to the hierarchical frameworks and place a huge impact on the operation as well as the process of the firm. Psychologist and scholars related to the study of behaviors in an organization believe in the understanding of the workplace behaviors and have analyzed different scenarios in an organization. (Denier, 1999; Fisher & Ashkenazy, 2000; Larsen, 2000; Rosenberg & Fredrickson, 1998; Weiss, 2001), Nestle is one of the major food products dealers in the whole world and own an extensive history of more than 135 years. Virtually the company is operating in every part of the world. The main assets of the company are not the offices and manufacturing areas, not even the brands they are offering or dealing with. Rather that they are globally appreciated the organization and own a number of nationalities. They have loyalty as persistent customers from all cultural, religious and ethical backgrounds, unifying the people from all continents of the world and locating their major sum of working units in the developing countries. Another important and distinguishes aspect of the corporation is that the own well-defined and successful business strategies and focus on the development of human capacities in every single country they are working with (Rouse, 2015).
Organizational Behavior and Organizational Culture
Founded by Henry Nestle in the year 1866, it is the largest food supply chain in the world and offered products related to the consumer goods and nutritional items. The working environment of the company is very informal and helps the people to communicate with each other easily. The administration is directly approachable by the clients and the suggestions from the customers as well as the employees are always welcomed. The downward communication plan is used by the organization (Grunig, 1982). To an extent the workers as well as the employees are also boosted up to participate the decision-making powers as well as suggestions in a number of ways. No written communication is found until and unless there is any special announcement. In nestle the performance of an individual is assessed by the communication and leadership skills as a core factor of their performance. Market value level salaries are offered to the customers to keep them motivated and with a high level of reward system for them (Peter Brabeck-Letmathe).
It is must to keep the employee motivated and to provide them with all the necessary information related to the industry and the future goals of the organization. In the process of making any decision the suggestions and ideas from the employees is most to be encouraged and thre must not be any kind of artificial barriers. With the consistently changing attitudes in the work places it is necessary to rearrange the current business application to function more effectively and achieve desired goals. Indeed, with a common business observation it is necessary to work effectively and keep changing the strategies to attain its goals as well as to compete with that world. There is into the wonder in the fact that some organizations keep on attaining their goals, but other are not, the only key to get consistent success is the adoption of change (Rouse, 2015).
The change process
Change management is a term used for systematic process in dealing with the changes in both; individual as well as organization on the whole. The change management carries three major aspects with it including adaptation of change, controlling of change and effects of change. These three aspects are the core to deal with the change. For any organization change is a way to define as well as implement certain procedures and deal with technologies to alter, enhance or upgrade the business situations and earn profits from the emerging properties in the market.
A successful adaptation of change is a must for the survival in the market. Change is important for an organization is the same way it is important for animals and plants. However, in terms of an individual or an organization it the situation is different than the plants and animals, it is controllable and can be tailored according to the needs of an organization or an individual. This process may involve the establishment of well-structured methodology for any certain response and the changes in the business environment. It also demands the manners to establish policies to deal with the responses to changes in the workplace. For any project, change management is an essential factor. Every project manager must examine the required changes and also determine the effects a change will have in the project as well as on the whole in a number of factors behind it (Rouse, 2015).
Change Control Systems
Change control is the major component that is used by the project managers to manage the desired changes in any project. On the proposal of any change, the project manager filters a change in one of the four major change control systems on the basis of its primary area and this will ensure that the changes will affect positively. These four-control systems of the change are:
The Scope Change Control System:
This change affects the project scope directly and the most conventional type of this change can be the project demanded by the customers for additional demands that are to be included in any project and that were not previously a part of that project or any project from that organization. To explain it, let’s assume that a customer asks to add a bay window in his building project or it asks for any printing option in the software development project. As these items are not a part of the project previously so they are then counted as a change to the scope of the particular project.
The Cost Change Control System:
The content of scope has no change else than the price of an item in that scope that can either increase or decrease. The example for this can be the construction of a project a particular marble has changed its cost; that can either increase or decrease. As the customer is still willing to get the same tile and not willing to shift to any other, in such case, the scope of project remain the same but the budget will demand for an increase to get the desired product. There is a possibility that the customer may shift his interest to other product that will keep the budget consistent as before (Rouse, 2015).
The schedule Change Control System:
In such change projects the schedules get affected in one way or another and the overall event in the project gets late. This can be exemplified as the backordering of the material from the vendor side. In this case a project cannot move ahead till the required material is delivered to the project site and the change comes in the time of completion of projects. This situation can be managed by the project manager and can be rearranged in a way that the team can work on another thing while waiting for the required product. This can also be helped by choosing other available materials and keep the project time frame and same steps as decided initially.
The Control Change Control System:
The projects for which a contract is being utilized with the specific vendor any alteration in the project that affects the vendor and will flow with the contract change control system. In addition to the scope of the project, the resources and their cost as well as the project schedule is explained in the agreed terms and conditions. For any change, they have an impact on the customer-vendor relations move via the system of contract change control. In such scenarios the project manager can also oversee that the particular change control system, rather differ to a particular organization and its central contract.
For all the above-mentioned change control systems, the determination of any of them can affect the other control system. Any project change is based on any of these control systems in one way or another (Rouse, 2015).
Integrated Change Control
This change control system examines the offered changes as well as determining the possible impacts of the project. It includes scope, cost, schedule and contract. The integrated change controls also the project management knowledge areas in order to determine the impacts of change will also have an impact on other areas of the Change control (Rouse, 2015). There are nine main areas of project management:
Scope: in case there is no change that appear to have an influence on the scope of the project, the changes are measured in order to see that is the change can influence the scope of that project or not.
Schedule: the manager of project will examine the offered change and check if the project timeline is affected or not. The project manager also considers the availability of resources, its access to the job sites, the flow of cash and its predictions, the project scheduling and the deadlines of that particular project.
Cost: budget of a project is monitored constantly. It is tracked for any changes that can be accumulated in the budget significantly as well as the cost overrun in the project. For any project, the major expense the labor and hence the overages of completion of a project have changed in the budget of the project.
Quality: Quality of a project is also affected by any other change. Any other change in the project can have an impact on the quality of the either project, that can increase or decrease depending on the scenarios. Hence, the project is also monitored for the defects as well as any kind of unexpected change in it. The project schedule change can also have an impact on the quality of the delivered products as the labor can have a rush and can generate defects in the project.
Communication: It is essential to communicate any change in the project and to the appropriate stakeholders at the suitable time. It is the responsibility of the manager to keep an eye on the each and every step of the project and examine the change and communicate it effectively and efficiently to the relevant people and the also consider the implications seriously.
Human Resources: Additional labor is also required with any change in the project. This change may demand for specialized labor according to the situation. The project manager may lose major resources and any assignments that went in a delay of the scheduled working on the project. Any change in the team of the project as if team members also leave the organization in a situation that has an ultimate impact on the entire project.
Risk: No matter what the change it, it has an impact on the success of the project. Minor changes can also have an impact on the project and can cause a number of risks to the project. This is the reason why all changes are must to be examined thoroughly and for all kinds of possible risks, these changes may offer the projects to ability to reach its major goals.
Stakeholders: Any change to the project can positively as well as negatively affect the synergy, excitement as well as support of the stakeholders of that project. Hence, it is necessary for the project manager to examine the possible potential impact of the change on the project and the stakeholders. This can be exemplified by the addition of removal of elements to any project or the stakeholder.
Procurement: The Changes to the project can also have an influence on the procurement of the project. Considering the change to the scope of a project as well as the additional materials, the facilities as well as the contract labor need to acquire the services or the goods (Rouse, 2015).
The integrated change control is an area of project management knowledge that formulates the effect of any action, change or its outcome on the project in one way or another. At the same time in affects other areas of the project. While determining if any change is needed in the project or not, it is necessary to perform the integrated change control to attain the desired goal (Rouse, 2015). Another important thing is that changes do not move in the defined manner, in any project there can be a number of unapproved changes that are known as defects in any project. The most common type of unapproved changes is when a team makes any kind of minor or major error in the project. In addition, the most common result for this error made is the team of that particular project must take positive and productive actions to amend the error they made in the project at first place. With an unapproved change, the project manager must have to work with the team through perfect corrective actions. The demands of the rework and its validation and second check before proceeding to the final delivery of the product (Rouse, 2015)
The term knowledge is defined as justifying personal belief. There are different kinds of knowledge, but the most common one as the explicit and tacit knowledge. The tacit knowledge actually inhabits the minds of people, and is either difficult or impossible to manage. Initially, most of the knowledge is tacit in nature and develop over a long time period (O’Dell and Grayson, 1998, p. 154). At the same time the explicit knowledge is found in the form of sentences, words, documents, computer programs, and organized data or in any other explicit form.
• The process of knowledge management is actually the organization, motivation, planning as well, we the controlling of people, system or process in any organization to make sure that the knowledge is enhanced in the employee effectively. These assets include the knowledge in the form of printed documents, database, electronic repositories, etc. all this knowledge is meant to enhance the working capabilities of the employees. Some major features of knowledge management include:
• The process of knowledge management involves the acquirement, creating, refining, storage, transferring, sharing and utilization of the knowledge.
• It plays a vital role in operating the process, development of methodologies and supporting the entire working system.
• Its goal is to leverage and to improve the knowledge in an organization and effectuate enhance knowledge, practices, improvement in the organizational attitudes, enhancing the ability to make better decisions and hence improving the overall performance of the organization.
However, an individual can perform the processor KM but there are also group therapies to deal with the KM process. Socially KM includes the communal practices, social networking, etc. Knowledge is successful if it is transferred from one generation or team to another. This is the reason why this process is people intensive rather than technologically intensive, as believed by most of the people (King, 2008).
The relationship between knowledge management and organizational learning can be conceptualized in a number of ways. According to Easter by-Smith and Lyles (2003) OL is the process to focus on the working, and KM to focus on the content. In other words, we can say that it is the relation between the two areas to review the OL of the KM. This can be done by motivating the creation as well as the application of knowledge. It pays off the organization by helping it to use this knowledge to deal with the functioning of an organization.
Knowledge Management in Organizations
In the figure 1, it is shown that the KM process directly enhance the process of organization. For example innovation, collective learning, individual learning, collaborative decision-making. It enhances organizational procedures produce intermediate results like better decision, products, services, relationships and organizational behavior. These results in better performance of the organizations.
The figure 2 is the explanation of the process cycle of the knowledge management. These models are provided in the manner in which one organization thinks about the process of KM. There are a number of models introduced to deal with the relationship of the major elements and steps of knowledge management. Including the Davenport and Prusak’s (2000) 3-stage model and the Ward and Aurum’s (2004) 7-stage model. However, the fig 2 model is valued the more because it deals with the major terminologies of a number of activities that can help to make branch roads to make essential and better decisions.
Another important thing is the four major pints under the title of Creation that are referred to the Nonaka’s (1994) four types of knowledge creation that includes:
• Socializations that includes the transformation of skilled kno0wledge into new tacit information with the help of social interactions
• Combinations that deal with the creation of new overt knowledge by merging the categories and also synthesize the existing knowledge
• Externalization that deal with the conversion of knowledge
• Industrialization is the process that deals with the creation of new knowledge from the existing one.
The one who has an interest in the KM in relation to gaining the knowledge, sometime ignore the fact that KM is all about the improvement of organizational performance. All other improvement is the basis that the organization carries, in order to evaluate the value of KM initiatives. There are a number of other shots down, the reason is that the KM experts do not take the efforts to assess or forecast the sufficient situations (Dorota Chmielewska-Muciek, 2010).
Most of the organizations focus primarily on one or the other of two mostly defined KM strategies “personalization” or “codification” (Hansen et al, 1999). Codification is mostly employed in the form of electronic document systems that organize, permit and store knowledge. It is easily distribution and re-used. This strategy is based on “re-use economics”. Participatory in acquiring or creating a knowledge asset and re-use countless. Secondly, enhance developing network knowledge, share and transfer to societies. (Vidoviý, 2010). Channeling individual expertise based on the expert economics, it is channeling individual expertise to the one with less expertise who may use it for further organizational goals. Earls (2001) also defined that a number of KM strategies in more in depth details. He also managed this school of thoughts, empirically with his observation of a number of companies.
The Organization of KM
KM is shown that the different ways in the organization. Often, the KM function is led by a chief knowledge officer (CKO). If the organization’s KM strategy is open, the CL may lead to a KM department. In further conditions, KM strategies can apply to the communications links among various KM groups and is of great importance (king, 2005: king, 2008). The KM is also connected to the perceived role of organizational culture in inducing KM success and practice. A “knowledge, culture” is a certain variety of organizational culture on behalf of “way of organizational life that… unacknowledged, cultures pea certain variety share, and utilize knowledge for the benefit and enduring success of the organization.” (Oliver and Kandadi, 2006, p. 8).organizational culture is believed to affect the knowledge- related behavior of individuals, organizational units, teams, overall organization, because it is important to effects the determination of which knowledge. It is applicable to share, with whom and when (King, 2009).
KM might be shown that across several organizations, for example customers, partners, and suppliers. Like KM activities obviously depend on communications network and systems (Van de Ven, 2005). “Value Supply chain” inter-organizational networks are in mutual custom to facilitate retailers like Wall- Mart to relate with suppliers to certify that record are always of desired levels on retail shelves. In warehouses, retail stockrooms and those supplies are made according to a determined schedule. The systems control an “automatic” basis that is made possible by the knowledge that is surrounded in the software by the joining partners. The well-known Linux software development project. For example, the effective use of a loose network undertakes knowledge inventors. It is controlled with two equivalent structures. One, which represents the current “approved” version of the system and the second in which apartments are continuous, being developed and tested (Lee and Cole, 2003).
After the complete study of what basically knowledge management and organizational learning is, we can have a better idea about the situation of strategic approaches in the Nestle Corporation. The company has a decentralized structure that makes it possible for every single business unit of the company to make decisions and deal with any changes on their own. Nestle perseveres the learning about their local customers with the help of market research. This makes the company able to develop a new product in accordance to the demand of market. Estimable about 98% of the sales of nestle come from the international market. These achievements are derived from the consistent adaptation to the change of market and keep on offering new product lines. The employee of nestle is also adaptive to change and can deal with any change efficiently. Nestle is good in consistent innovation as well as offering new line projects, the R&D development as well as adopting new marketing strategies the company has influentially adopted the new 4Ps of marketing that is core of the huge success of the company. Innovation is another keep to the success of the company. As a food and beverage company the corporation is taking full advantage of the mathematical formulas to study the customer data and make decisions on the basis of this analysis. To integrate the strategic direction the corporation, overall, Nestle carries a number of alternatives that involve everyone in the process of making a decision and implementing any change (Nestle, 2014).
To short innovate is the key to success of the major corporations of the world. Just like nestle, there are a number of other organizations that are dealing with the KM and OL to enhance their abilities and compete with the organization in a better way. For example, a business organization would need the investment and plan to deal with the market. According to most of the successful corporations of the world like Nestle, the gain of knowledge and market updates and their management plays a vital role in their success. This knowledge helps to make analytic as well as strategic organization of the core values an organization and generate huge capital as a profit. The management should be competent to develop a good organizational structure as well as culture. It would be possible by means of good administration provided by the people working with the organization. A better and strategic KM and OL will help each individual to bring improvement in all their performances and helping career development. The knowledge management is aimed to enhance the knowledge of an individual or the corporation on the whole and the help they find new and better ways to deal with organized activities. Knowledge have an impact on the organizational performance, decisions and behaviors of the people working and working for the organizations. KM focus on knowledge processes, transfer, sharing, modifying, and creation. This procedure involves individual learning, collective learning and collaborative decision making. KM helps to improve the organizational attitudes, the diction, making powers, services, products, the relationship and overall processing that results in improved outcomes of organizational on the whole and hence is of great importance.
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