Use font size 11, Calibri, 1.5 line spacing in all responses – DO ALL questions
Questions 1: 18 points
There are many environmental exposures that are important. Describe for each of “three groups” in the general population why that group has increased susceptibility to environmental toxicants. Include in your response whether you are referring to those that are at a greater risk of being exposed OR those where once the exposure occurs, the effects are greater.
Group 1: Children less than 2 years of age
Group 2: Individuals who have poor lung function.
Group 3: Individuals in poor housing in close proximity to agriculture or industry
Answer 3x 10-15 lines for each
Question 2: 16 points
What are the concerns around climate change and
1. Environmental health issues related to crop production (4 points)
2. Spread of infectious disease (4 points)
3. Environmental health when comparing environmental justice issues in the US vs India, who are worse of, and why? (8 points)
Answer approx. 6-10 lines for part 1 and 2, AND 12-18 lines for part 3
Question 3: 36 points
We live in an industrialized world and there remains significant concern about environmental exposures and public health. One of the key components of environment epidemiology is exposure assessment. Describe an idealized study design that allows you to both assess the level of exposure to an important environmental pollutant and conduct an epidemiological investigation of the general public for a specific disease. You can choose your scenario – do one only
Scenario 1: Organic (carbon containing) air pollution from coal fire station and lung cancer
Scenario 2: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) release into water systems and leukemia
Scenario 3: Toxic heavy metals in soil near crop farming areas and neurodevelopment issues
Explain the choice of epidemiological study design needed to conduct the investigation. If your study includes control groups describe them. How would you measure exposure and give examples of what you would measure. This should include both measures of the environment and biological measures (biomarkers). Indicate how you would collect the samples and how many collections would occur. Give a list of potential toxins of concern in the scenario. It is difficult to measure every possible exposure ie measure all types of organic air pollutants, in large studies – so choose up to three toxins/pollutants to measure – what are the basis for your choices. Describe the age range you would be interested in studying and why. Describe any confounders that you think maybe of interest, and this should include what you know about how environmental justice (EJ) issues. Describe how issues around EJ may modify the observation(s) of the study. The study should not focus on occupational events, but if the study includes persons, who work in industry, describe why occupation needs to be understood.
Assuming that the study was successful in demonstrating exposure and health affect – explain what components of the data generated would be important for indicating/suggesting causality.
Answer 30-60 lines _ I am aware this is a tough question and will grade accordingly – mostly I am looking for you to explain concepts not complex biostats or analytical methods. Do not panic on this one.
Question 4: 18 points
What are criteria air pollutants – why were these chosen for monitoring instead of other potential air pollutants? Explain how in the past one state can have well regulated levels of industrially produced air pollution, yet still have air that does not meet regulatory requirements? In your opinion what are the greatest threats for causing indoor and outdoor air pollution in the US and how should this be controlled. Do issues of environmental justice impinge on air pollution, explain?
Answer 20-30 lines