pay close attention detail by detail and complete each single step. With the 25 pages I need one page table of the literature review. below are the instructions for the paper as well as the table. In a few days I will also post examples. I need to first approve a topic so please send me one asap so that I can approve it before you get started. The table of the literature review needs to be done within a week it is just a preliminary table which does not have to later be used through out the paper. We may add or remove later if they will not go well with the research.
Term Paper/Research Proposal Instructions
The term paper for this course is a research proposal. The form of the proposal should correspond broadly to that required by the Public Health Service, which is outlined below. In completing this form you are really stating a plan for how you intend to do a specific study. You are also explaining why the study should be done. Thus, the research proposal is a means of demonstrating that you know what you are doing in two respects. First, it is a way of showing that you know how to identify an important research question. Second, it is a way of showing that you know how to conduct research on that question. For this course, the minimum paper length is 25 double-spaced pages.
Because this is a research methods course, the background and significance section and the progress report/preliminary studies section of the proposal are less important than the remaining sections. For purposes of this paper, you should not spend a lot of time doing library research on the substantive issues underlying the research question you have chosen. Instead, you should choose a question about which you know something and write brief background and significance and preliminary studies sections. You should devote most of your attention to a clear statement of your specific aims, and to the methods you will use in conducting the research. Outline for the term paper:
Specific Aims – List the broad, long-term objectives and describe concisely and realistically what the specific research in this proposal in intended to accomplish and any hypotheses to be tested.
Background and Significance – The Public Health Service instructions for this section state, “sketch the background to the present proposal, critically evaluate existing knowledge, and specifically identify the gaps which the project is intended to fill. State concisely the importance of the research described in this application by relating the specific aims to the broad, long-term objectives and to health relevance.”
This section, then, reviews what is known about the problem under study, with appropriate citations. It is intended both to demonstrate that the researcher has done his or her “homework” and to indicate his or her own personal perception of the research problem. When doing this type of review, it is important to consider both what is known about the topic, and the research methods that have been used or could be used in further research. In this section you should also explain why the proposed research should be done.
Research Design and Methods – According to the Public Health Service, here you describe the research design and the procedures to be used to accomplish the specific aims of the project. Include the means by which the data will be collected, analyzed and interpreted. I have included some additional discussion of sections that I have found to be helpful below, but you do not need to follow this outline.
Introduction – The introduction is a brief summary of how you propose to do the research. You would discuss the main features of the design, but details are not necessary here.
Population to be Studied – Here you indicate the specific population group you will study and what the units of analysis are (individuals, groups, organizations, cities, etc). You should also indicate how the population to be studied compares with other relevant populations. Unless you will study every unit in the population described, you must indicate how you will go about selecting the sample of units to be studied. Although for purposes of this paper you need not discuss the technical sampling details, you should be able to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the sampling approach and the sample size. Include a brief discussion of power.
Research Design – This is where you give the specifics of the design. Describe the type of design (e.g., cross-sectional survey, longitudinal panel study, quasi-experimental or experimental assessment of the effect of an intervention, etc.). Discuss why you chose that design. If it is an intervention study, give some specifics about the intervention.
Assignment to Groups – If you are assigning units of analysis to groups you will need to discuss how these units will be assigned. For example, will individuals be randomly assigned, will schools be assigned on the basis of their location, etc?
Data Collection Methodology – In this section you describe how you will actually go about gathering data. Whether you use face-to-face interviews, mailed questionnaires, direct observations, or some other method, you should describe the method realistically and indicate why you have chosen it rather than another. You should also specifically state the advantages and disadvantages of your approach. This should not be a list that you might supply on an examination, but rather an examination of the real advantages or problems in this research context. In this section you should also attempt to describe your operational measures or indicators explicitly. You should be able to indicate the basis on which you will decide how to measure the variables you wish to study.
Data Analysis Techniques – In a research proposal you are expected to provide a plan for analyzing the data. Most of you will probably not be prepared to discuss the statistical aspects of your proposed analysis. Nonetheless, you should discuss how the data will be organized so that the research questions you have set out to study can be examined. This may involve outlining the specific tables you will present even though you may not be able to say what statistics you would use.
You should also discuss the potential difficulties and limitations of the proposed procedures and alternative approaches to achieve the aims. Provide a tentative time sequence or timetable for the investigation. Point out any procedures, situations, or materials that may be hazardous to human subjects or personnel and the precautions to be exercised.