Study Guide for the Long Formal Report
Constructing the Long Formal Report:
As problems become more complicated reports become longer. As the need for formality increases and the problem becomes bigger the report’s makeup also changes. We add a title page and a title fly. Next we add a letter of authorization and transmittal that appears on letter head and though can be conversational it is still formal. A table of contents is added along with a table of illustrations. (DON’T NEED IT! ALREADY HAVE ONE). We add an executive summary that is about 1/8 the size of the report proper. After the executive summary the report proper appears (it is as long as it needs to be in order to tell the story). Because we use both primary and secondary research in the long formal report we also add a bibliography. As the report is long most likely too was the research process –for various reasons we usually don’t include ALL of the research in the report as it would make the report too long and confusing so we use an appendix.
*BE REMEMBER TO READ THE TABLES AND WRITE THE DESCRIPTION
• Title Page, (DON’T NEED IT! ALREADY HAVE ONE)
• Title Fly , (DON’T NEED IT! ALREADY HAVE ONE)
• Letter of Authorization/Transmittal, (DON’T NEED IT! ALREADY HAVE ONE)
• Executive Summary,
• Table of Contents,
• Table of Illustration,
• Report Proper,
• Bibliography, and
• An appendix
o Appendices are used when the incorporation of material in the body of the work would make it poorly structured or too long and detailed.
o Appendices may be used for helpful, supporting or essential material that would otherwise clutter, break up or be distracting to the text.
o Other people’s work in the appendix will be referred to (e.g. see Appendix 3), not quoted (e.g. using short or long quotes) from the appendix.
o Appendices must be referred to in the body of the text, for example, ‘details of the questionnaire are given in Appendix B (on page 23)’.
Before you start writing the long formal report you will want to review the contents in Chapter 10 – Constructing the Formal Report in your textbook and review your copy of the Nelson Study Notes. You will also want to reference the lectures and your notes.
THE CASE: Touch Screen Marketing and Research (TSMR) is a marketing research group that provides services to its clients by developing and providing surveys and questionnaires to its clients’ customers. TSMR is quite concerned about the weak responses it has been receiving recently to its mail surveys. They have hired your consulting company to research the problem for them and to make some recommendations about how to increase their survey responses. You have completed a survey (primary research) you have tabulated all of your findings in tables 1 through 6 at the end of this case.
NOTES FROM YOUR RESEARCH: Hearsay comments and anonymous notes of returned but uncompleted surveys indicate that most organizations never complete the increasing number of surveys they receive – from TSMR or anyone else – except for the local, state, and federal surveys industrial companies are legally obligated to answer. Too, most organizations find little value in academic surveys, because they are perceived to serve the publish-or-parish atmosphere of the university world.
Symptoms such as these created a need for the agency to hire your company to conduct its own survey to find out more precisely why responses have been low. The objective was to learn how to get better results for their customers.
As we needed to determine where some of the problems might be we selected 450 corporations for the sample – 200 chosen at random from the Fortune 500 list, and 50 each from Fortune’s retailing, transportation, utility, banking and insurance lists. Next you designed a survey instrument to focus on what you think are the central issues in the study – increase in number of surveys, policies about answering surveys, benefits of surveys, number of surveys answered, reasons for not answering them, and preferences for survey length. In the survey, we asked respondents to assume that any changes you referred to were changes that had occurred in the last six years.
It has been two months since the survey was mailed to the 450 corporations. To date, you have received 175 returned surveys (a 38.9 percent return rate), [and you have tallied the results as shown in the tables at the end of this case].
Not everyone responded to all questions in the survey, so not all of the totals equal 175. By looking at the returns by corporate type and by total numbers, however, you believe you have reliable, representative answers.
With the data assembled, you need to develop a meaningful report. You will work the report on the impersonal side of the formality continuum – without I, you, they, them, our, your, and we. Also you will use graphics where needed to help readers picture the results and their meaning. Because the report is considered formal, you will use prefatory parts – a title fly, a four-spot title page, a letter of authorization/transmittal, a table of contents, a table of illustrations, and an executive summary.
Write the report that will present the facts, and interpret them. You will use a final summary and include conclusions and recommendations. You will write the report in the indirect format using your research that will help Touch Screen Marketing and Research increase the responses to its surveys. Address the report to Stanton P. Calhoun, President.
Remember as you include your research (below) you will need to properly label each table and graphic that you include in your report. HINT: All of the tables should be included and you should take information from each and discuss your findings using additional secondary research and developing a summary for each section.
Remember to re-number your tables according to how they appear in your report. An example would be if you are using tables 2, 3, 6, 5, 4 and then 1 in the report they would become tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. We number our illustrations in the order that they appear in the report.
Since each table only tells part of the story you will need at least one other graphic that represents the information you are depicting in each of the tables. The table and the related illustration should be placed in the report section where the discussion of each appears. It is important that you remember to keep your discussion of each of the tables and each illustration near the table and/or illustration. The discussion should never appear two or three pages away from the graphic.
Increase in Percentage of Surveys Received
Percentage Increase Number of Responses Percentage of Total
0-29 26 17
30-59 49 32
60-99 17 11
100-149 29 19
150-200 10 7
200+ 22 14
TOTAL 153 100
Degree of Restrictiveness of Corporate Policy about Answering Surveys
More Restrictive Number of Responses Percentage of Total
Very definitely 58 33
Moderately 38 23
Slightly 28 17
Not at all 46 27
TOTAL 168 100
Benefits Received From Responding to Surveys
Benefits Received Number of Responses Percentage of Total
Very definite 2 1
Moderate 32 19
Slight 94 56
Not at all 41 24
TOTAL 169 100
Percentage of Surveys Answered
Number of Responses
Percentage of Total
0-19 24 14
20-39 22 13
40-59 40 24
60-79 38 22
TOTAL 170 100
Source of Surveys Received*
Sources of Questionnaires Composite ScoreUniversity personnel 271
University Students 198
Trade organizations 149
Professional associations 116
Federal government 101
State government 50
Other businesses 39
*Respondents were asked to rank the three most numerous sources from 1 to 3, with 1 as the most important. A rating of 1 was scored with 3 points, 2 with 2, and 3 with 1. Points were summed for all sources and presented as a composite score.
Likelihood of Responding to a Survey by Source*
Lease Likely to Be Answered Composite Score
University students 360
Other businesses 328
University personnel 210
Professional associations 127
Trade organizations 115
State government 18
Federal government 0
*Respondents were asked to rank their likelihood on a 1 – 4 scale, with the least likely receiving a rating of 1. A rating of 1 was scored with a 4, a 2 with a 3, etc. Points were summed and presented as a total score.
Before you start you will want to determine that answers to a few questions:
1. What is your role (job) with the company?
2. What is the task that you have been asked to complete?
3. Who needs to understand what the data means?
4. What do you want your reader to do?
5. What does your reader need to know in order to do what you want him/her to do?
As you examine each of the tables you should develop at least one question for each table. Then as you research the answer to your questions you will be creating your list of factors. Using your authoritative (secondary) research you will want to support your primary findings.
Now you have all of the information you need to develop your list of factors.
For this assignment you will utilize:
1. A Title Fly
2. A Four Spot Title Page,
3. A Combination authorization, [letter of] transmittal
4. A Table of Contents – List of Illustrations,
5. An executive summary,
6. The report proper – as long as it needs to be – include headings,
7. A bibliography that contains all of your primary and authoritative research, and
8. An Appendix that includes all of the information that you used that does not belong in the report itself.
An example of the Long Formal Report can be found on pages 163 through 177 in your text book.
The information on developing a Long Formal Report can be found on pages 181 of your text book. Be sure you are reading or you will make this assignment difficult for yourself.
Title Fly: The title/fly contains only the title (see figure 10-3 page 163). The title should be built around the 5W’s Who, What, Where, When, Why, sometimes we add How to this list. Sometimes there are problems in which not all of the W’s are essential to complete identification. It is however, a good idea to consider all of them for fit (that is to see if they all have a place in the title). Remember that one or two word titles are too broad and that subtitles can aid conciseness. If titles are too short they tend to be vague and do nothing to create completeness. The title fly is locate about one-third of the way down the page and contains the title in capital letters, underlined, centered, and if two lines are necessary it is broken at thought units. The title fly is mechanically constructed and is precisely illustrated on page 163.
Title Page: Like the title fly, the title page presents the report title (see figure 10-3 page 164 in the textbook). Along with the title the title page also displays other information essential to the identification of the report. The title page should include the title (of course), the authorizer or recipient, and complete identification of the writer, of the report. The date of the report should also be included if it is not made clear in the title. The title rests about 1 ½ inch from the top of the page and the final line, the date is about 1 ½ inch from the bottom of the page. The authorizer information should be preceded by a phrase such as “Prepared for” or “Submitted to” and complete identification of you as the report writer preceded by “Prepared by” or “Submitted by” such phrases assist additional readers. The title page is mechanically constructed and is precisely illustrated on page 164.
Letter of Transmittal, Foreword, Preface: Most formal reports contain some form of personal communication from writer to reader (see figure 10-3 page 165 in the textbook). Remember that the letter of transmittal also contains the authorization. In some formal cases, when a group is the recipient of the report a forward or preface is used in place of the letter of transmittal that performs the function of communication. The major message of the letter of transmittal is positive and written in the direct style. In the opening of the letter of transmittal there should not be any delay in presenting the report. The letter should begin by transmitting the report, identifying the subject, authorization facts, and contain a summary of the report. The executive summary and letter of transmittal can be combined in some cases or the executive summary can follow the letter of transmittal. In cases where the report is not strictly formal the letter of transmittal can allow you to “chat” with your reader(s) and set a less formal and much friendlier tone for the report in general. The letter of transmittal can allow you to reflect your personality. Minor distinctions are sometimes drawn between forwards and prefaces, but they are similar to transmittals. All are messages from the writer(s) to the reader(s) and set the tone for the report. Like transmittal letters, they seek to help the reader appreciate and understand the report; they may include helpful comments about the report. They may provide additional useful information such as interpretation, follow-up and can create the opportunity to provide accolades to those who were instrumental in the development of the report but who were not writers of the report; for instance researchers, proof readers, and persons who might have assisted with the budget or other portions of the report.
For this assignment you will include a letter of transmittal. It should be in letter format and should carry your company or organization’s logo. The example for your letter of transmittal is illustrated on page 165.
Table of Contents and List of Illustrations: If the report is long enough to require a guide to its contents developing a table of contents can provide an outline (see figure 10-3 pages 166 – Table of Contents and 167 List of Charts in the textbook). Additionally, if the report has a number of charts, graphs, illustrations and tables a list of illustrations should be included in order to assist the reader. The mechanics of constructing both can be found in the textbook.
For this assignment you will include a table of contents and a list of illustrations. The scenario contains data tables which can be developed into graphs and charts to illustrate the data and to provide the writer with the opportunity to draw conclusion for the reader(s). Both should be in the suggested format found in the textbook on pages 166 and 167.
Executive Summary: The report is condensed in the executive summary; also referred to as the synopsis, epitome, or précis. For our purposes we will refer to this portion of the report as the executive summary. This is the portion of the report that summarizes all of the essential ingredients in the report and includes the major facts, primary analyses and conclusions. Remember that this may be the only part of the report that is read but must also serve as a preview or review for the reader who will thoroughly read the report. The length of the executive summary is about one eighth of the report and relies on concise, lively writing. It is written after the full report and simply takes parts of the report in order and length and reduces them. For the most part the executive summary takes the report in order and simply reduces it but in some cases the writer may have a reason for setting up the executive summary in an order different from that of the report. Either direct or indirect order is appropriate for the executive summary. When written in the direct order the executive summary shifts the major findings, conclusions, or recommendation to the major position which is the beginning then the summary moves to the introductory parts and through the report in normal order (see figure 10-2 on page 157 of the textbook which illustrates both orders).
For this assignment you will include an executive summary. It should be written in indirect order in order to follow the format of your report. REMEMBER: the executive summary is written last even after the conclusion is constructed but placed before the body of the report. See page 169 Figure 10-3 for an example of an executive summary.
The Report: The contents of the report can follow any number of general arrangements. The most important factor is that it makes sense for the reader and that the writer has a logical reason for placing the report in that order.
For this assignment you will write the formal report. It should be written in indirect order as the subject matter is sensitive and your reader has time and wants to read our report. Your report will include all of the following parts.
Introduction: The introduction prepares the reader to receive the information and provides the orientation process concerning the contents of the report. The introduction always starts with a statement of the problem. The introduction should help the reader understand and appreciate the problem.
The introduction content possibilities vary but should advance the tone of the report. You will want to consider the following general topics:
1. Origin of the report – the first part of the introduction should include a review of the facts of authorization.
2. Purpose – vital to the report is the purpose of the report. It is important to tell the reader the purpose of the report.
3. Scope – this is the boundaries of the problem that describe the exact coverage of the problem in clear, succinct language.
4. Limitations – there can be cases when the limitations are important enough to warrant presenting them in a separate section from the introduction. Limitations could include an inadequate supply of money for conducting the investigation, insufficient time for doing the work, unavoidable conditions that hampered objective investigation, or limitations inherent to the problem being investigated.
5. Historical Background – More often than not knowledge of the history of the problem can be crucial to understanding the report. This is the opportunity the writer has to provide the reader with the information about the issues that are involved in the problem. The reader can be oriented and receive clarification concerning the report situation. Therefore, the report writer may want to include a section on the historical background of the problem in the report.
6. Sources and Methods of Collecting Data – It is important to tell the reader how the report information was collected. For example, if research was utilized then major publications that were used will need to be identified. If interviews or questionnaires were used the writer will want to provide the reader with information concerning sample determination, questionnaire construction, procedures followed, facilities that were used for checking returns etc. (it will be easy to access reports that are published on the web that contain such information and utilize language concerning processes that can easily be transferred into your reports). For this assignment you will need no less than 10 sources of research. This does not include the tables that are provided for you. Additionally, you will need to develop your bibliography to include your research and your tables.
7. Definitions – If the report utilizes terms and language not common to the reader these terms should be defined in the report in a way that does not “talk down” to the reader. There are two ways to provide definitions in a report. The first is to define each word as it is used and the other way is to develop a special section in the introduction for definitions that provides descriptions of unfamiliar terms and usages of those terms.
8. Report Preview – In long reports it is useful to use a preview (in this assignment you will use a preview) telling the reader how the report will be presented; what topics will be discussed first, second, third etc. This section should also contain reasons why this order was followed. Doing this provides the reader with a road map allowing them to logically relate to the topics as they are read. (See pages 169 and 170 Figure 10-3 for an example of an introduction containing all of the parts described above).
Report Body: This is the portion of the report that presents the information collected and relates it to the problem (see pages 170-177 in the textbook). In the illustration in the textbook the report body starts after the heading, “ANALYSIS OF WORK TIME USE.” This section is the report and as such comprises the major portion of the report’s content. The report body presents and analyzes the information gathered drawing conclusions.
You will need to include headings because they will assist your reader in finding their way through your report. Remember that you have used your outline in your table of contents so the headings in your report should match those listed in the “contents” section. You will need both first and second degree headings. Please use your example in the textbook concerning the report body and the section that deals with developing headings (pages 222 and 223).
You will want to note that each section of the report body contains a summary-conclusion that helps the reader identify and remember the major findings.
Report Ending: Reports can be concluded in a number of ways. A report can end with a summary, a conclusion, a recommendation, or a combination of all three.
1. Ending Summary – Reports that do little more than present information usually include an ending summary of the major findings or research. This ending summary is less complete than an executive summary and is usually confined to reviewing highlights or facts of the report. Longer formal reports can have minor summaries at the end of each major division of the report in order to keep the reader focused and on track (see page 189 “Summary-Conclusions for an example at the end of the first section).
2. Conclusions – The report conclusion answers what the writer said they wanted to accomplish in the problem statement. The structure for presenting conclusions varies by the nature of the problem. The conclusion comes at the end of the report unless the report is written in direct order. In some cases conclusions can be listed according to the findings discussed in the report, the most important conclusions might be placed first or combined with recommendations. In cases where the conclusions are obvious they may be omitted (especially where including them will seem to be “talking down” to the audience) in this case conclusions may be omitted and only recommendations or summaries are then presented.
3. Recommendations – The recommendations section is the writer’s interpretations based on the conclusions. Recommendations should be included when readers want or expect them or when recommendations are requested. When it is appropriate, the writer should include who should do what, by when, where, why, and sometimes how it should be done. If an alternative course of action exists it should be presented. Because the writer is familiar with the findings it is their responsibility to state the desired action(s) that should be taken, never leaving the reader(s) to choose their own course.
Appended Parts: Appended parts should only be added when needed. The appended parts section is determined by the specific needs of the problem and can contain an appendix and or a bibliography.
Appendix: The appendix contains information that indirectly supports the report. REMEMBER: Any information that directly supports the report belongs in the main text of the report. Additionally, charts, graphs, tables, data sets etc. usually belong in the text of the report body as they are the visual representation of the data that relates to the text and supports the assertions made within the report that supports the findings. Placing charts, graphs, tables, data sets etc. in an appendix only serves to make readers thumb through many pages to find illustrations to the facts that they read in the report body.
For this report you will place the long tables in the Appendix. You will extrapolate information directly from these tables and place those charts, graphs, data sets or abbreviated tables in the report. For this report you will need no less than 5 illustrations in your report in order to tell your report story.
Bibliography: Sometimes investigations heavily use research, both library and internet; in such cases it is highly advisable to utilize a bibliography. Information on construction of a bibliography is discussed in Chapter 13 beginning on page 234. The bibliography contains the list of secondary research that is footnoted with the sources listed. Not only is it imperative to give credit to sources but documenting and listing secondary sources provide valuable information to the reader(s). Chapter 13 deals with quoting and paraphrasing; when to acknowledge; how to acknowledge; electronic documentation; standard reference forms; footnotes; and the differences in Chicago, APA, and MLA citation formats.
Length and formality characterize long reports. Long formal reports usually concern major investigations, which is why they need to be long. Formal reports are usually written for high-level administration; this explains their formality and their length. However, when statistics from an investigation are utilized in order to provide information and knowledge, the formal report sets the writer apart from the facts and thus creates a sense that the writer is not seeking a particular outcome but merely presenting information for consideration leaving the reader/receiver to draw their own conclusions.
Chapter 10 contains an illustration of a long, formal report, thus providing a detailed example of all the parts of a report (starting on page 163 of the textbook). Remember, this assignment calls for a long formal report all of the portions of this example will be needed.
Physical Presentation of Reports:
The appearance of the report forms an impression on/with the reader(s). Neat work gains favorable impressions whereas untidy work gains unfavorable impressions. A neat well-arranged document is easy to read and provides the reader with the impression that the writer is competent when the work is professionally done. This attitude of the reader forms their receptiveness to the information that the writer seeks to communicate. The reader’s receptiveness and impression that the writer is competent then becomes part of the message.
General information: Paper is usually the best media choice for reports. E-mail and fax do not assure good appearance. The content, color and size of the paper also communicate the overall quality of the report.
The graphic layout of the text and the visuals/graphics need careful attention to the elements that can affect the reader. External spacing is the white space around the text copy. The commonly accepted ratio of white space to text on a page is 1:1 for readability. It is important to consider balance and symmetry as the report is designed. Internal spacing refers to vertical and horizontal spacing on the page. Kerning is used to space between letters and leading controls space between vertical lines. Another way to determine white space is the use of margins. Type is aligned left, right or center of the page through justification. Recent studies show that left-justified type is easier to read as it is what we are most accustomed to seeing.
The standard layout for a conventional page is 1-inch top and side margins for double spacing and 1 ¼ to 1 ½ inches for single spacing. Bottom margins are 1 ½ times the side margins. For this report you will use single spacing. Double-spaced text should be indented and single-space text should be in block format (see Figure 12-4 and 12-5 on pages 216 and 217 of the textbook). The number of indentation spaces is optional but it is important to be consistent. A good rule is to tab once to indent for consistency.
Physically attractive reports communicate better. Neatness is essential as the appearance of the report reflects the writers work philosophy. In general typefaces are classified as serif or sans serif. Use serif type for text and san serif for headings. It is important for the writer to remember that the report should be attractive and not cluttered. Type should be used to distinguish headings from the text portion of the report. Heading choices are 1) centered, 2) marginal, and 3) run-in (see Figure 12-9, page 223 in the textbook). It is important to use a logical combination of type and position for headings.
There are two systems of numbers that are used in written reports. Prefatory pages are numbered in small Roman numerals and text pages are numbered in Arabic numerals. If the report is bound at the top, numbers should be placed at the bottom of the page. If the report is left-bound, numbers should be placed in the upper right corners of the pages.
Check List for the Long Formal Report:
? Four Spot Title Page (example on page 226)
? Combination letter of authorization and transmittal the end of your letter should have a closing, a goodwill statement and contact information. Additionally you should have a signature block and have signed your letter (page 228 in your text book contains a good example of “authorization” first paragraph and transmittal information in the second and third paragraph. The fourth paragraph in the example on page 224 is the closing, statement of goodwill and contact information.)
? You need to develop a letterhead for the company, Touch Screen Marketing. The letterhead should contain a logo, the address, phone number and a URL address. There are many examples throughout the textbook and your copy of the Nelson Study Notes. Additionally you can always Google company letterhead for examples.
? Table of contents and list of illustrations (use the example from the long formal report table of contents page 166 and the list of illustrations found on page 167 of your text book). Remember that your outline serves as your table of contents. Do not start writing without an outline. Your report will not have clarity.
? You can find an example of an executive summary on page 168. The executive summary is typically about 1/8 the size of the report proper. If your report proper is 8 pages long your executive summary should be about a page long.
? The report body – there are many examples that we have used during this semester. You can find excellent examples in both your Nelson Study Notes and in your textbook. You can also use the example of the short formal report body on pages 192 through 197 – remember that you will not include a signature at the end of the report as you have one on your letter.
? In order to assist your reader you will need to include either topic or talking headings for the sections of your report. The discussion concerning headings can be found on page 222 of your text book.
? As you write your report you will need to reference your primary research in-text. You should use your text book pages 234 through 248 for information on how to do so.
? As you insert your primary research (the tables) be sure to label them. You need to change the numbers to put them in order, then you need to add a title and a source (information about graphics can be found in your text book on pages 253 through 278).
? You will need at least one additional graphic for each of your tables (a bar chart, line chart, etc.) information on how we develop these can also be found in your text book on pages 253 through 278).
? A bibliography in APA style (use the information in your text book starting on page 246). As you will only have primary research for this assignment you will reference it as such. Remember you have a survey.
? As always be sure to attach your correction guide so that I can provide you with proper feedback in order for you to take steps to improve your writing.
Writing in BEIT 336: This is a class clearly focused on report writing in the context of business. Your writing should reflect a professional level which includes proper use of the English language (grammar, punctuation, spelling, verb and subject agreement, etc.) and demonstrates the ability to write an organized, well-developed report that conforms to the guidelines of the assignment. If you have concerns about your writing, ISU has a math and writing center for your convenience. It is located in Cunningham Library on the 2nd Floor in the Southwest Corner. You can schedule an appointment with for assistance by calling (812) 237-2989 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org
This assignment is worth 135 points total. Be sure to proof read your work. Papers that are not well written will receive no more than a “C” grade and due to the content and format may receive a lesser grade in accordance with the guidelines of the assignment.
WARNING: Do not come to class with the idea that you will print your report and turn it in at the beginning of class on the date due. I promise you that you will most likely be standing in line at the beginning of class and one of two things will have occurred; either the printer will have broken down, or the line will be long with your classmates standing in line in front of you. At that point we will have started class; you will be considered late for class and counted as tardy and your work will be considered late and may not be accepted.
Name : _________________________________________
Section Parts Points Your Points
(Content, format, writing techniques) Letter of transmittal (block style)
Table of contents (use 1st degree heading)
List of illustrations (use 1st degree heading)
Executive summary (use 1st degree heading)
Deficient (0-14)… Developing (15-18)…Satisfactory (19-22)…Superior (23-25) 6 pts
(Content, format, writin techniques) Overview: 17 pts. Total (use 1st degree heading)
(Section content—no heading)
Scope (factors with depth)
Sources and methods of Collecting Data
Deficient (0-9)…Developing (10-12)…Satisfactory (13-14)…Superior (15-17)
Discussion of factors: 48 pts. Total (use 1st degree heading; sub-sections under each factor use 3rd degree headings)
Content and writing
Pie or Bar Chart:
Deficient (0-28)…Developing (29-35)…Satisfactory (36-42)…Superior (43-48)
Report Ending (17 pts. Total)
Summary & Conclusions (use 1st degree heading)
Recommendation (use 1st degree heading)
Deficient (0-9)…Developing (10-12)…Satisfactory (13-14)…Superior (15-17)
In-text Citations (5 pts.)
(content, format) References page
10 Secondary references (APA style)
Rubric for both In-text Citations & References Page Deficient (0-8)…Developing (9-11)…Satisfactory (12-13)…Superior (14-15)
10 pts. Organisation & Pagination
Deficient (0-5)…Developing (6-7)…Satisfactory (8)…Superior (9-10) 6 pts
Deficient (0-80)…Developing (81-100)…Satisfactory (101-121)…Superior (122-135) Total Points Possible: 135